The executive authority of the Kerala State is exercised by the Governor either directly or through officers/subordinate to him. There is a council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions. The allocation of the business of the Government among the Ministers is made by the Governor in consultation with the Chief Minister. The transaction of the said business of Government is governed by the rules made by the Governor Under Article 166 of the Constitution and the instructions issued thereunder. These rules and instructions are called "The Kerala Government Business Rules" and "the Kerala Government Secretariat Instructions".
The business of Government is transacted through various departments of the secretariat of which the number is 44 at present including Finance and Law Departments. The allocation of the business of Government among the departments is made in the manner specified in the schedule to the Rules of Business. The procedure to be followed in the transaction of the business of the Government in the Secretariat is laid down in the "Rules of Business" , "Kerala Government Secretariat Instructions" and the "Kerala Secretariat Office Manual". The duties and responsibilities, powers and functions of all categories of officers in the Secretariat are defined in the Secretariat Office Manual.
The official head of each department of the Secretariat is the Secretary. He is a Secretary to the Government and not to the Minister in charge of the department. He exercises general supervision and control over the staff under him and it is his duty to ensure the prompt despatch of business in his department. He is responsible for the careful observance of rules and instructions in the transaction of business in his department. The Additional Secretary or Joint Secretary occupies a position identical with that of a Secretary in regard to the subjects alloted to hi and the Secretary is usually assisted by Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries. The department is divided into convenient Sections and each section consists of a Section Officer and Assistants.
The Secretariat work is confined to the framing of policies, the laying down of rules and principles of procedures, financial control, work connected with legislation, general direction and also evaluation of the work done and delegating adequate financial and administrative powers.